history of malayalam cinema
Kerala: The Legacy of Visual Culture
Even much before the arrival of cinema, the people of Kerala were familiar with moving images on the screen through the traditional art form ‘tholpavakkuthu’ (Puppet Dance).
Usually exhibited at festivals of village temples, ‘tholpavakkuthu’ uses puppets made of leather with flexible
joints. These joints are moved using sticks and the shadow of these moving puppets are captured on a screen using a light
source from behind, creating dramatic moving images on the screen. Stories from the mythology were told so, with accompanying
dialogues and songs with traditional percussions like the Chenda. ‘Tholpavakkuthu’ uses some of the techniques
widely used in cinema like the close-ups and long-shots.
Apart from the art of ‘tholpavakkuthu’, which exhibits the nature of cinema, many of the folk
arts and classical dance forms like ‘Kuthu’, ‘Koodiyattam’ and ‘Kathakali’ exhibits very
high visual qualities in their form. My be this legacy of Kerala’s visual culture lead the filmmakers of Kerala to take
up cinema in a different way, rather than mere plain story telling, than anywhere else in India, and the people of Kerala
to appreciate them.
Cinema Arrives in Kerala
The first film exhibition in South India was conducted by Trichi based Paul Vincent, an employee of Railways,
using machineries imported from France. He exhibited films using his Edison Bioscope all over South India during which he
arrived at Trichur in Kerala. K W Joseph who happened to be there got interested in this new technique and purchased the machinery
from Paul Vincent. The first cinema hall in Kerala with a manually operated film projector was hence established in Trichur
by K W Joseph in 1907. The first electrically operated film projector too was established by him at Trichur in 1913, the ‘Jose
Electrical Bioscope’. Soon such cinema halls were established in other major cities of Kerala. In the earlier stage,
Tamil, Hindi and English films were mainly exhibited in these cinemas. But it was Tamil cinema which dominated Kerala. The
Malayalee audience would have welcomed Tamil films because of the cultural similarities between the two states. Joseph died
before the first ever Malayalam cinema was produced.
The Silent Era
The first Malayalam film was produced and directed by, J C Daniel, a dentistby profession who didn't had any prior experience with cinema. His film Vigathakumaran was released in 1928,
but failed economically. But it is notable that while mythological films ruled all over the Indian cinema arena, J C Daniel
had the courage to produce the first ever Malayalam film with a social theme. The economic failure of Vigathakumaran discouraged
him from producing further films.
The ill luck of Malayalam cinema continued. The second film Marthandavarma based on a novel of the
same name by C V Raman Pillai, was produced by Sunderraj in 1933. But due to a legal confrontation regarding the rights of
the film, the producer had to withdraw the film from cinema halls after few exhibitions. Had it not been for the legal embargo,
the film would have had a great impact on the cinema of South India. By Marthandavarma the history of silent Malayalam
cinema too came to an end.
Balan: The First Talkie
Indian cinema had already entered the talkie age even before Marthandavarma was released. Balan,
the first Malayalam cinema with a sound track was released in 1938. Produced by Tamilian, T R Sunderam at the Modern Theatres,
Balan was directed by Notani. A melodramatic film, with more Tamil influence than Malayalam, Balan featured
the struggle of two orphaned children, Balan and his younger sister, oppressed and exploited by their evil stepmother until
they are rescued by a kindly lawyer. Even though this film could be considered irrelevant in artistic sense, its economic
success created a base to the Malayalam film industry. Followed by the success of Balan, Jnambika was released
in 1940. After Prahlada (1941), Kerala had to wait till 1948 for the next film. Nirmala (1948) directed by P
J Cheriyan explored the possibility of music and songs in Malayalam cinema. Legendary Malayalam poet, G Shankara Kurup penned
the lyrics for this film. Thus song-dance sequences became an essential ingredient for commercial success in Malayalam cinema.
It is notable that none of the Malayalam films that came before the independence of India reflected the mood
of the struggle for independence and also the film that came after independence and the early 1950s reflected that torrid
period of Kerala, where the Communist upspring was taking place changing the entire social climate of the State. Cinema continued
to be dramas happening in a totally artificial and alien world.
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